Complete guide to 5G
5G technology: how it works
4G vs 5G: how they compare
5G Dangers: the fact and fiction
5G Internet: will it replace fibre
5G security: the full picture
5G speed: guide and tools
5G deals: get the best offers
5G phones: discover the best
5G networks: in the US and UK
5G stocks: investment tips
5G use cases are set to revolutionise how we use technology. And despite 5G sounding like a boring network upgrade, the move from 4G to 5G is actually less like an upgrade, and more like a full-scale transformation (resembling the move from PC to tablet or wearable, rather than PC to laptop). 5G’s increased speed and consistency, as well as latency reduction, promise to disrupt both traditional and digital sectors, paving the way for automated vehicles, smart cities, automated factories, and a new wave of business communications. And there re already some amazing 5G use cases out there.
Game changing speed
So what is 5G, exactly? Well on a technical level, it is a network consisting of two parts; the Radio Access Network (RAN) and a core network. The infrastructure converts analogue to digital signals for use by 5G-ready devices.
The radio access network (RAN) will include macro cell tower masts as well as new small cell nodes (using millimetre waves). These will be attached to buildings lampposts, and signs, allowing for more processing to happen on the edge leading to lower latency in the network, according to Australian information resource, EMF Explained 2.0.
The 5G core network will use network function virtualisation (NFV) to manage routing, packet processing, and security as well as Software Defined Networks (SDN) which will allow for better infrastructure scaling, lower redundancy and less hardware, thereby reducing energy requirements.
NFV and SDN will enable network slicing, allowing network operators to separate users, devices and applications that require a different quality of service, according to Robert Keith, technology expert at A10networks.
High 5G standards
To be considered 5G, a network must offer minimum peak download speed of 20 Gb/s, or 2.5 Gigabytes per second (2.5 GB/s), and peak upload speed of 10 Gb/s (or 1.25 GB/s). The standards also require a minimum latency of just 4 milliseconds under ideal conditions. Actual speed will depend on several factors, including network, proximity to node, and device used.
Benefits across sectors
According to small business portal Bytestart, 5G will allow communication between a million devices per square kilometre (compared with 100,000 for 4G). The enabling of these IoT sensors, combined with speed and low latency, will lead to many benefits across a range of business and prosumer activities.
IoT connectivity will lead to fully integrated smart cities, which will be essential as urban populations grow. The United Nations (UN) predicts that 68 percent of the world’s population will be living in urban areas by 2050, which will place increasing pressure on our cities, such as pollution, crime, overcrowding, congestion, and social disorder.
5G use cases: smart cars and cities
Network operators are already looking to showcase what can be achieved with 5G technology, and one such 5G use case is the Alba Iulia Smart City, which has been developed in conjunction with Orange, and has seen congestion monitoring, parking sensors, and smart waste management introduced in the Romanian city.
Smart factories will also be enabled by 5G, including more robots in production lines, and drones in last mile delivery. It will also enable car to car communication around hazards and incidents, as well as fully automated cars.
And the CTO of Waymo, which started life as the Google Self-Driving Car Project in 2009, believes that 5G is a crucial “enabler”, when it comes to developing the company’s autonomous car fleets.
“I think it’ll help in terms of communication [and with] latency and bandwidth,” explains Dmitri Dolgov, Waymo’s CTO. “Our cars still have to rely on onboard computation for anything that is safety-critical, but 5G will be an accelerator.”
5G use cases: agriculture
Traditional industries such as agriculture will also use sensors to collate real-time information about fertilisation, livestock, and moisture needs, helping to conserve energy. And we are already seeing the emergence of smart farms, with services such as the MooCall sensor and app now being powered by 5G. MooCall is a sensor that attaches to the tail of cows, and then alerts farmers when a cow is about to give birth (cows move their tails more just before and during labour).
5G use cases: healthcare
The health industry will offer remote diagnosis and operations, as well as e-health and responsive wearables, and AI assistants might help people with disabilities. Companies such as the interactive physiotherapy specialist Immersive Rehab are already looking at how 5G can improve their offering, and 5G is being used in various trials such as the Liverpool 5G Testbed.
5G has even made its way into the operating theatre, when Telefónica, with the help of a hospital in Malaga, already presented the first assistance system for surgery that runs entirely on 5G technology. The howcase took place at the IV Advanced Digestive Endoscopy Conference, where Telefónica broadcast medical training sessions live, and in 4K quality. It achieved this with “almost no latency,” according to Telefónica.
Elsewhere, O2 has developed a deal with Samsung and the NHS to test out “smart ambulances” equipped with 5G technology. O2 will test the technology on six ambulances which will allow for new services such as real-time video technology and high-quality scanners (read the full story here).
There will be a further shift from hardware to software across all layers of the technology infrastructure, thereby reducing operating costs. Small businesses can also expect new offerings from telecommunications providers and Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNOs) taking advantage of the slicing facility. 5G should also extend the battery life of devices by up to ten times according to a recent LG Networks blog.
Business communications will be transformed by virtual reality technologies enabling dynamic video experiences for non-local clients or colleagues, as well as holographic projection at meetings, conferences and events. On a more prosaic level, conference calls will be seamless, and mobile documents and video downloads will be almost immediate.
5G use cases: construction
The construction industry has always looked at new technologies as a way to improve safety and working practices, and 5G is no different.
KT and Hyundai Engineering & Construction have announced that they will work together to build 5G networks at construction sites, with a aim to develop construction and automation technology.Using 5G infrastructure, we could see autonomous construction robots, and 5G will also be used to improve other technologies with better productivity and monitoring at construction sites.
KT will help Hyundai to build these 5G networks at its construction sites. The trials of the 5G solutions will commence later this year. If the trial all goes to plan, then the two companies aim to apply their technologies to many more construction sites next year.
KT has said that its 5G technologies will provide "ultra-fast data transmission speeds and ultra-low latency with top notch security". And the companies have both said that the development of autonomous robots will give Hyundai the opportunity to carry out work on sites with limited to no human access (read the full story here).
5G use cases: drones and energy savings
There are many interesting user case studies, but the increased use of 5G connected drones or autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for service or production delivery is one with some very interesting permutations. One of these might help with disaster relief situations via the sharing of real time data. They could help with search and rescue missions and deliver medical help, according to OnQ a blog from US telecom operator Qualcomm. And 5G drones can also be used as small cells to prevent gaps in 5G coverage.
Another interesting end result of 5G is the huge potential for energy savings. Including all the currently unconnected, energy consuming devices via 5G IoT connections into the grid will allow for better management of energy.
Where there are outages, 5G and smart grid technology can help with early diagnosis, speeding up repairs and reducing down time. Smart lighting will see street lights dimmed when no one is present, again saving power.
In fact, a recent McKinsey report, Future proofing infrastructure in a fast changing world, argued that cities deploying a range of smart solutions could cut greenhouse gas emissions by 10–15 percent.
How should you get 5G ready?
Prosumers and business owners will need to swap their old phones for a 5G ready version. There are already several 5G smartphones on the market, and EE markets five of them (the Oppo Reno 5G, Samsung Galaxy S10 5G, LG V50 ThinQ 5G, the OnePlus 7 Pro 5G and Huawei Mate 20 X 5G). You can also pre-order the Samsung Galaxy Note 10 Plus. Similarly, you will also need a 5G plan, either from one of the big telecoms operators, or an MVNO. We are likely to see more offerings from mobile operators as 5G develops.